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Early Notice. The city’s response to an applicant stating whether it considers issuance of a determination of significance likely for the applicant’s proposal.

Easement. A grant of one or more of the property rights by the property owner to and/or for use by the public, a corporation or another person or entity.

Ecology. The Washington State Department of Ecology.

Egress. An exit from a building or site.

Electric Vehicle. Any on-road vehicle that operates, either partially or exclusively, on electrical energy from the grid, or an off-board source, that is stored on-board for locomotive purpose. “Electric vehicle” includes: 1) a battery electric vehicle; 2) a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; 3) a neighborhood electric vehicle; 4) a medium-speed electric vehicle; and/or (5) a battery-powered scooter.

Elevated Building. For insurance purposes, a nonbasement building that has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns.

Elevation, Architectural. A scale drawing of the side, front or rear of a structure.

Elevation Certificate. An administrative tool of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that can be used to provide elevation information, to determine the proper insurance premium rate, and to support a request for a letter of map amendment (LOMA) or letter of map revision based on fill (LOMR-F).

Emergency Repair. The work necessary to prevent destruction or dilapidations to real property or structural appurtenances thereto immediately threatened or damaged by fire, flood, earthquake or other disaster.

Emergent wetland. A wetland with at least 30% of the surface area covered by erect, rooted, herbaceous vegetation as the uppermost vegetative strata.

Employees. Refers to all persons, including proprietors, working on the premises.

Employer. A sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, unincorporated association, cooperative, joint venture, agency, department, district or other individual or entity, whether public, nonprofit or private, that employs workers.

Endangered and Threatened Species, Federally Designated. Fish and wildlife species identified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or NOAA Fisheries as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act, 16 USC Section 1531, et seq.

Endangered, Threatened and Sensitive Species, State Designated. Fish and wildlife species native to the State of Washington and identified by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife as sensitive, threatened, or endangered species.

Energy-Efficient Construction. A structure designed and built which encourages the efficient use of energy. Construction standards qualifying for this shall be as specified by the State Energy Code. Design or construction methods that can be proven to provide equivalent or better energy conservation performance may be allowed as an alternative.

Engineer. An individual licensed by the State of Washington to practice civil engineering.

Enhancement. Actions performed to improve the condition of an existing degraded critical area or buffer so that the functions provided are of a higher quality. See also Wetland Enhancement.

Enlargement. An increase in size of an existing structure or use, affecting the physical size of the property, building, parking, and other improvements.

Entertainment. Regarding Adult Businesses, any exhibition or dance of any type, pantomime, modeling or any other performance.

Entertainer. Regarding Adult Businesses, means any person who provides sexually-oriented adult entertainment within a public place of amusement whether or not a fee is charged or accepted for such entertainment.

Equity Value. The amount by which the fair market value of a residence as determined from the records of the county assessor exceeds the total amount of any liens or other obligations against the property.

Erect. To build, construct, attach, hang, place, inscribe, suspend or affix any sign or to paint any wall sign.

Erosion Control. The design and installation of measures to control erosion and sedimentation during and after construction and to permanently stabilize soil exposed during and after construction using a combination of structural control measures, cover measure, and construction practices.

Essential Facility (Applies in Frequently Flooded Areas). This term has the same meaning as “essential facility” defined in ASCE 24. Table 1-1 in ASCE 24-14 further identifies building occupancies that are essential facilities.

Essential Public Facilities. Public facilities and privately-owned or operated facilities serving a public purpose that are typically difficult to site. They include but are not limited to: airports, state education facilities, state or regional transportation facilities, prisons, jails, other correctional facilities, and solid waste handling facilities. These facilities are of state-wide and regional significance, as opposed to facilities which only serve Clark County. Therefore, local transit service is not considered an essential public facility. Essential public facilities will be allowed in locations appropriate for the services provided and the people served.

Exception. Permission to depart from a specific design standard in this title.

Existing Manufactured Home Park or Subdivision (Applies in Frequently Flooded Areas). A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by the community.

Exotic. Any species of plants or animals that are not native to the area.

Expansion to an Existing Manufactured Home Park or Subdivision (Applies in Frequently Flooded Areas). The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).

Extraordinary hardship. Extraordinary hardship occurs when strict application of the provisions of 20.775 VMC Wetlands and Water Bodies Protection would prevent all reasonable economic use of the subject parcel.

Façade. Any exterior building face, from corner to corner and finished floor to eave, exclusive of any roof area.

Face. To front upon.

Family. See Household.

Feature. An artifact or set of artifacts which, due to its size and complexity, loses its integrity when moved, and therefore, cannot be transported as a unit to a laboratory or museum for study or display (e.g., a hearth, an ash lens, a storage pit, a cache of related artifacts, or a house floor).

Fence, Sight-Obscuring. A fence or evergreen planting constructed or arranged in such a way as to obstruct vision.

Findings. A written statement of the facts determined to be relevant by the approval authority as the basis for making its decision. The approval authority applies the relevant facts to the approval criteria or standards to reach its decision.

Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas include habitat for Endangered, Threatened and Sensitive species; Priority Habitats and areas associated with Priority Species; Riparian Management Areas; Habitats of Local Importance, and water bodies.

Fish Habitat. Habitat which is used by any fish at any life stage at any time of the year, including potential habitat likely to be used by fish which could be recovered by restoration or management and includes off-channel habitat.(WAC 222-16-030)

Flood or Flooding.

1. A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:

a. The overflow of inland or tidal waters.

b. The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.

c. Mudslides (i.e., mudflows) which are proximately caused by flooding as defined in subsection (1)(b) of this definition and are akin to a river of liquid and flowing mud on the surfaces of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water and deposited along the path of the current.

2. The collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding as defined in subsection (1)(a) of this definition.

Flood Elevation Study. An examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations, or an examination, evaluation and determination of mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards. Also known as a Flood Insurance Study (FIS).

Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). The official map on which the Federal Insurance Administration has delineated both the areas of special flood hazards and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. A FIRM that has been made available digitally is called a Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM).

Floodplain. The relatively flat area or lowlands adjoining the channel of a river, stream, watercourse, or other similar body of water that has been or may be susceptible to being inundated by floodwater. The floodplain includes the areas of special flood hazards (frequently flooded areas).

Floodplain Administrator. The community official designated by title to administer and enforce the floodplain management regulations.

Floodplain or Flood-Prone Area. Any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source. See “Flood or flooding.”

Flood-Proofing. Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate risk of flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures, and their contents. Flood-proofed structures are those that have the structural integrity and design to be impervious to floodwater below the base flood elevation.

Floodway. The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated height. Also referred to as “regulatory floodway.”

Floor Area. The area of all floors, finish wall-to-finish wall, included in surrounding walls of a building.

Floor Area, Gross. The total enclosed area of all floors of a building measured to the outside face of the structural members in exterior walls and including halls, stairways, elevator shafts at each floor level, service mechanical equipment rooms, habitable basement or attic areas, and structured (not surface) areas for vehicle parking and loading.

Floor Area Ratio (FAR). A mathematical expression determined by dividing the total floor area of a building by the total area of the lot. It is determined by dividing the total gross floor area of all the buildings on a lot by the area of that lot, excluding public easements and right-of-ways, landscaped areas required under the requirements of this chapter and Chapter 20.740, Wetlands and Drainage Areas. For example, a floor area ratio of 2 to 1 (or 2:1) means that there are 2 square feet of gross floor area for every 1 square foot of lot area.

Frequently Flooded Areas. Areas of special flood hazards.

Front. Each side of a lot abutting a public street except state or federally designated highways.

Frontage. That portion of a parcel of property that abuts a dedicated public street, highway or approved private street, from property line to property line.

Fronting Street. Shall mean a public or private road providing for vehicular access to the boundary of a parcel of real property being proposed for development.

Full-time Employee. A person other than an independent contractor scheduled to be employed on a continuous basis for fifty-two weeks a year for an average of thirty-five hours or more per week.

Full-time Equivalent (FTE). The equivalent number of full-time students attending a post secondary school such as a trade school, college or university.

Fully Complete. Regarding land use applications, the determination by the Review Authority that the application and associated documentation contain sufficient information and detail to reach a final decision; such determination shall not be interpreted to mean that the application meets applicable standards.

Functionally Dependent Use (Applies in Frequently Flooded Areas). A use which cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. The term includes only docking facilities, port facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, and ship building and ship repair facilities, and does not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.

Functionally Disabled. With respect to a person who has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person’s major life activities; has a record of having such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment. Such term does not include current, illegal use of or addiction to a controlled substance.

Functions or Functions and Values of Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas. Functions or functions and values are the beneficial roles served by Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas provide habitat for breeding, rearing, foraging, protection and escape, migration, and over-wintering. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas affect the quality of habitat by providing complexity of physical structure, supporting biological diversity, regulating stormwater runoff and infiltration, removing pollutants from water, and maintaining appropriate temperatures.

Functions or Functions and Values of Wetlands. Functions or functions and values are the beneficial roles served by wetlands. Wetlands improve water quality, maintain watershed hydrology (for example, by providing base stream flow during dry periods and controlling flooding), and provide habitat.

Garage, Private. A paved, covered, and enclosed motor vehicle parking space with a locking door, either attached or detached from the living unit. An accessory building or an enclosed accessory portion of the main building designed and/or used for shelter or storage of vehicles, boats and/or other vehicles owned or operated by the occupants of the main building.

Garage, Public. A structure or portion thereof other than a private or community garage used for the storage of self-propelled vehicles or trailers. Any garage, other than a private garage, open to use by members of the public.

Geographic Barrier. A natural or constructed land form or feature such as, but not limited to: a promontory, a ravine, a large or fast-moving body of water or a dike.

Geologic Hazard Areas. Geologic hazard areas include landslide, seismic, and erosion hazard areas designated pursuant to VMC 20.740.130(A).

Grab Sample. Regarding solid waste regulations, a single sample which is taken from a waste stream without regard to the flow in the waste stream and without consideration of time.

Grade. As defined in the City Adopted Building Code(s).

Grading. Any excavation, filling or combination thereof.

Grading Permit. The permit required under Chapter 70 of the City Adopted Building Code(s).

Gross Floor Area. Means the same as floor area.

Gross Leasable Area (GLA). The total floor area designed for both tenant occupancy and exclusive use. This includes both owned and leased areas.

Ground-disturbing Action or Activity. Any development, construction, or related operation which could alter the site, including but not limited to: tree or tree stump removal, road or building construction or grading.

Group Living. Living facilities for groups of unrelated individuals that include at least one person residing on the site who is responsible for supervising, managing, monitoring and/or providing care, training or treatment or residents

Guest House Dwelling. A detached accessory building designed, constructed and used for the purpose of providing temporary living accommodations for guest, or for members of the same household as that occupying the main structure, and containing no kitchen or kitchen facilities.

Guyed Tower. Any wireless communication support, using guy wires which are permanently anchored.

Habitable Floor Area. The total heated floor area in a structure devoted to living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces, and other similar areas are not counted as habitable floor area.

Habitats of Local Importance. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Areas which are not designated as Priority Habitats and Species by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife but are designated as locally significant by the city.

Hard surface. Hard surface is an impervious surface, a permeable pavement or a vegetated roof.

Hazardous Material. Any product, substance, commodity or waste in liquid, solid or gaseous form that exhibits a characteristic that presents a risk to water resources. Risk may be due to ignitability, toxicity, reactivity, instability, corrosivity, or persistence. This definition extends to all “dangerous wastes” and “hazardous substances” that are defined in WAC 173-303 (State Dangerous Waste Regulations). It also includes the chemicals and/or substances that are defined in the Federal Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Hazardous Waste. Means all dangerous and extremely hazardous waste as defined in RCW 70.105.010 except for moderate risk waste.

Hazardous Waste Storage. The holding of dangerous waste for a temporary period as regulated by State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Chapter 173-303 WAC.

Hazardous Waste Treatment. The physical, chemical or biological processing of dangerous waste to make wastes nondangerous or less dangerous, safer for transport, amenable for energy or material resource recovery, amenable for storage, or reduced in volume.

Hazardous Waste Treatment and Storage Facility, Off-Site. The treatment and storage facilities that treat and store wastes from generators on properties other than those on which the off-site facilities are located.

Hazardous Waste Treatment and Storage Facility, On-Site. The treatment and storage facilities that treat and store wastes generated on the same geographically contiguous or bordering property.

Headwaters. Springs, lakes, ponds or wetlands that provide significant sources of water to a stream.

Healthy Soil. Soil that is of good quality with the capacity to sustain plant, animal, and human life by providing nutrients, air and water space to infiltrate, pollutant absorption and filtering, and habitat.

Heritage Tree. A tree or group of trees designated as such by the city in Chapter 20.770 VMC, Tree Conservation.

High-Intensity Land Use. Land uses which are associated with high levels of human activity or substantial habitat impacts including Residential, Commercial, and Industrial zoning districts.

Historic District. A geographically definable area possessing a significant concentration, linkage or continuity of sites, buildings, structures or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development.

Historic Structure (Applies in Frequently Flooded Areas). Any structure that is:

1. Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of the Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;

2. Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;

3. Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or

4. Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:

a. By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior, or

b. Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.

Home Occupation. A use conducted entirely within a residential building, which use is clearly incidental and secondary to the use of the dwelling for dwelling purposes, and complies with the criteria established by 20.860 VMC Home Occupations.

Homeowners Association. A nonprofit corporation or association operating under a recorded land agreement through which:

1. Each person owning or purchasing a lot in a planned unit or other described land area is automatically by such ownership or purchase a member; and

2. Each lot is automatically subject to a charge for a proportionate share of the expenses for the organization’s activities, such as maintaining a common area and improvements.

Household. An individual, two or more persons related by blood or marriage, a group of two or more disabled residents protected under the Federal Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988, adult family homes as defined under Washington State law, or a group living arrangement where six or fewer residents receive supportive services such as counseling, foster care, or medical supervision at the dwelling unit by resident or nonresident staff. Up to six residents not related by blood or marriage who live together in a single-family dwelling or in conjunction with any of the above individuals or groups, shall also be considered a household. For purposes of this definition, minors living with parent or legal guardian shall not be counted as part of the maximum number of residents.

Hydric Soil. Soil that is saturated, flooded or ponded long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part. The presence of hydric soil shall be determined following the methods described in the Wetlands Delineation Manual defined in this chapter.

Hydrogeomorhpic (HGM) Classification. System used to classify wetlands based on the position of the wetland in the landscape (geomorphic setting), the water source for the wetland, and the flow and fluctuation of the water once in the wetland.

Hydrophytic Vegetation. Macrophytic plant life growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content. The presence of hydrophytic vegetation shall be determined following the methods described in the Wetlands Delineation Manual defined in this chapter. (Ord. M-4325 § 3, 2020; Ord. M-4179 § 62, 2016; Ord. M-4034 § 2, 2012)