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A. Residential use types.

1. Household Living. Living facilities for small groups (households) of people who are related or unrelated, featuring self-contained units including facilities for cooking, eating, sleeping, and hygiene. Tenancy is longer than 30 calendar days. Household structures include single-family detached and attached dwellings; duplexes; multifamily dwellings; and modular and manufactured housing units. Most types of senior housing (e.g., congregate care or assisted living) are considered to be household living if residents live in self-contained units, even if there are also shared facilities within the building. The maximum number of people who may reside in any given dwelling unit shall be determined by the city adopted building code.

2. Group Living. Living facilities for groups of individuals that include at least one person residing on the site who is responsible for supervising, managing, monitoring and/or providing care, training or treatment of residents. Larger group living facilities may also be characterized by shared facilities for eating, hygiene and/or recreation. Examples include nursing/convalescent homes, residential care homes or centers; single-room occupancy (SROs) facilities; sororities/fraternities and convents/monasteries. Tenancy is typically 30 days or more. Excludes detention and post-detention facilities (see subsection (E)(5) of this section, Detention and Post-Detention Facilities).

3. Home Occupation. Commercial, office or other economic activity wholly contained within the residence or accessory building within which it is located, and is clearly subordinate to the primary residential use.

4. Medical Center Residential. Extended stay facilities and medical center uses that typically occur in a residential setting, if approved through a public facilities master plan pursuant to Chapter 20.268 VMC. Examples include extended stay housing for employees and patient families and midwifery practices that occur in a single-family residential scaled structure. Maximum occupancy and other parameters may be determined through the master plan review process.

5. Short-Term Rental. A dwelling unit or individual rooms within a dwelling unit that are rented to a guest(s) by a short-term rental operator for fewer than 30 consecutive days.

B. Civic use types.

1. Basic Utilities. Unstaffed community infrastructure, including but not limited to water tanks, sewer pump stations, telephone exchanges, and electric power substations. Excludes facilities that include offices, service centers and/or material storage (see subsection (C)(6) of this section, Office, and subsection (D)(1) of this section, Industrial Services).

2. Colleges. Institutions of higher education. Accessory uses may include classrooms, laboratories, theaters, auditoriums, libraries, dormitories, eating facilities, bookstores, other small-scale retail, general offices, and parking. Excludes private, profit-making trade, and vocational schools (see subsection (C)(4)(b) of this section, Personal Services). Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act.

3. Community Centers. Public, private, and nonprofit social, resource and multi-purpose facilities that are open to the public for free or fee (including membership fees). Examples include: community centers; senior centers; homeless day centers. Accessory uses may include offices, food preparation and service, child care, laundry facilities, showers, health assessments, classrooms and related activities.

4. Community Recreation. Public, private, and nonprofit recreational, social and multi-purpose facilities that are open to the public for free or fee (including membership fees). Examples include: health/fitness clubs; indoor or outdoor tennis/racquetball and soccer clubs and other sports fields; indoor/outdoor swimming pools; boat launches; golf courses; and shooting ranges. Accessory uses may include clubhouses, pro shops, offices, locker rooms, restaurants/delis/concession stands, child care facilities, restrooms, maintenance facilities, and parking. Excludes such facilities when collocated in a public park (see subsection (B)(9) of this section, Parks/Open Space); and certain types of indoor recreational facilities (see subsection (C)(3)(b) of this section, Indoor Entertainment).

5. Cultural Institutions. Public or nonprofit cultural facilities including libraries, museums, historic sites, and galleries.

6. Day Care.

a. Child Care. As defined by the Revised Code of Washington (RCW) state statute:

i. Family Child Day Care Home. A facility where a person regularly providing care during part of the 24-hour day to 12 or fewer children in the family abode of the person or persons under whose direct care the children are placed.

ii. Child Care Center. A person or agency that provides care for 13 or more children during part of the 24-hour day.

b. Adult Day Care. Provision of daytime services, including respite, recreational, social and therapeutic activities, to disabled and/or elderly adults in a group setting. Categories include:

i. Residential Adult Day Care. Provision of adult day care services for six or fewer handicapped and/or elderly adults, with or without compensation, in the home of the provider.

ii. Institutional Adult Day Care. Provision of adult day care services for seven or more handicapped and/or elderly adults either in a residential or institutional, e.g., nursing home, setting.

7. Emergency Services. Public safety facilities including police and fire stations, and emergency communications, but not including ambulance services.

8. Medical Centers. Facilities providing inpatient, outpatient, emergency, and related ancillary services to the sick and infirm, including drug and alcohol treatment. Usually developed in campus setting. Accessory uses may include diagnostic and treatment facilities; laboratories; surgical suites; kitchen/food service facilities; laundry; housekeeping and maintenance facilities; administrative offices; and parking. Medical centers may also include freestanding offices for hospital-based and/or private-practice physicians and other allied health care professionals; these medical office buildings are regulated as offices (see subsection (C)(6)(b) of this section). Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act.

9. Parks/Open Space. Lands that are maintained in a natural state and/or developed that are designed for public active and passive recreation. Examples include parks, public squares, recreational trails and nature preserves. Does not include areas in active cultivation (see subsection (E)(1) of this section, Agriculture/Horticulture); or cemeteries (subsection (E)(4) of this section, Cemeteries).

a. Neighborhood parks. Small parks usually no greater than five acres designed to serve the immediate neighborhood. Access is on foot or bicycle with little or no on-site parking provided. Accessory uses may include low-impact outdoor playing/practice fields (without associated parking), playgrounds, sports courts, picnic areas, educational/interpretive facilities, walking/jogging paths, restrooms, and seating areas. May collocate with schools.

b. Community parks. Larger parks typically 15 acres or larger designed to serve a larger geographic area than a neighborhood park. Access is on foot and by bicycle, transit, and vehicle. May contain one or more Community Recreation uses as defined in subsection (B)(4) of this section. Other accessory uses may include walking/jogging trails; picnic shelters; outdoor performance facilities; off-leash dog, bicycle, and skateboard parks; sports courts, community gardens; bicycle, pedestrian, and transit amenities; educational/interpretive facilities; viewpoints; concessions; restrooms; caretaker and maintenance facilities; and parking. May collocate with schools.

c. Regional parks. Any park greater than 100 acres designed to serve regional needs. Accessory uses include any of the facilities found in neighborhood and community parks.

d. Trails. Publicly accessible walking, jogging or bike trails that extend beyond the boundaries of a single subdivision or development project. Accessory uses may include signage/maps; interpretive centers; viewpoints; and trailhead facility, restrooms, and parking. Does not include trails or portions of trails created as part of Neighborhood, Community and Regional Parks.

10. Postal Service. Refers to postal services and processing as traditionally operated by the U.S. Postal Service. Such facilities include customer sales, mail sorting, and fleet truck storage. Excludes profit-making parcel post or mail services (see subsection (C)(4)(b) of this section, Personal Services).

11. Religious Institutions. Permanent places of religious worship that may include related accessory uses that are clearly incidental and secondary to religious worship, congregation, and teaching such as administrative offices; child care centers/preschools; classrooms for religious instruction; auditoriums; social halls; rectories; and gymnasiums, playgrounds and other recreational facilities. May include on-site functions related to ministry to the poor such as emergency overnight shelter, food service, group meals and food and clothing pantries.

12. Schools. Public and private preschool, kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high schools. Accessory uses include administrative offices; classrooms and laboratories; kitchen/cafeterias; auditoriums; gymnasium, swimming pools; playing fields and related indoor and outdoor physical education facilities; and storage and maintenance facilities. The programs and activities of other public and nonprofit organizations including those associated with adult education, after-school care, recreation and social services may collocate in a school facility. Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act.

13. Social/Fraternal and Clubs/Lodges. Nonprofit organizations with social, philanthropic and/or recreational functions and activities.

14. Transportation Facilities. Bus, trolley, streetcar; light and heavy rail transit stops, stations and other facilities; water taxi and ferry stations; and accessory bicycle parking. Includes associated fuel storage. Excludes airports (see subsection (E)(2) of this section, Airports/Airparks); public streets and sidewalks; and heavy and light rail maintenance/switching yards (see subsection (D)(3) of this section, Railroad Yards); and heliports (see subsection (E)(7) of this section, Heliports). Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act.

15. Park and Ride Facilities. “Park and ride facilities” means parking facilities that serve motorists transferring to or from urban public transportation vehicles or private carpool vehicles.

C. Commercial use types.

1. Commercial and Transient Lodging. Residential facilities such as hotels, motels, rooming houses, bed-and-breakfast establishments, and homeless shelters where tenancy is typically less than one month. May include accessory meeting, convention facilities, and food preparation and service.

2. Eating and Drinking Establishments. Establishments that sell prepared food and beverages for consumption on site or take-away including restaurants, delicatessens, bars, taverns, brew pubs, espresso bars, and group meal service.

3. Entertainment-Oriented.

a. Adult Entertainment. Facilities including adult motion picture theaters; adult video/book stores; and topless, bottomless, and nude dance halls which include materials and activities characterized or distinguished by an emphasis on matters depicting specified sexual activities or anatomical areas.

b. Indoor Entertainment. Commercial indoor facilities such as bowling alleys, arcades, trampoline or bounce house facilities, shooting ranges, movie, and live performance theaters.

c. Major Event Entertainment. Facilities such as auditoriums, stadiums, arenas, amphitheaters, convention centers, and racetracks which provide athletic, cultural or entertainment events and exhibits for large groups generally exceeding 1,000 spectators.

4. General Retail.

a. Sales-Oriented. Establishments which provide consumer-oriented sales, leasing and rental of consumer, home and business goods including art; art supplies; bicycles; clothing; dry goods; electronic equipment; fabric; gifts; groceries; hardware; household products; jewelry; pets and pet products; pharmaceuticals; plants; printed materials; stationery; videos; and clothing and food pantries. Excludes large-scale consumer products (see subsection (C)(4)(d) of this section, Bulk Sales); and those sold primarily outdoors (see subsection (C)(4)(e) of this section, Outdoor Sales).

b. Personal Services. Establishments which provide consumer services such as banks and credit unions; barber and beauty shops; automated teller machines (ATMs) and related automated vending facilities; pet grooming; laundromats and dry cleaners; copy centers; photographic studios; specialized instructional schools; trade/vocational schools; massage therapy; acupuncture; and mortuaries.

c. Repair-Oriented. Establishments which engage in the repair of consumer and business goods including television and radios; bicycles; clocks; jewelry; guns; small appliances and office equipment; tailors and seamstresses; shoe repair; locksmiths; and upholsterers.

d. Bulk Sales. Establishments which engage in the sales, leasing and rental of bulky items requiring extensive interior space for display including furniture, large appliances, and home improvement sales.

e. Outdoor Sales. Establishments that engage in sales requiring outdoor display and/or storage including lumberyards and nurseries.

5. Motor Vehicle Related.

a. Motor Vehicle Sales/Rental. Includes car, light and heavy truck, mobile home, boat and recreational vehicle sales, rental and service.

b. Motor Vehicle Servicing/Repair. Freestanding vehicle servicing and repair establishments including quick and general vehicle service, car washes and body shops not an accessory to new vehicle sales.

c. Vehicle Fuel Sales. Establishments engaging in the direct-to-consumer sale of gasoline, diesel fuel, and oil products for cars, trucks, recreational vehicles, and boats.

d. Electric Vehicle (EV) Basic Charging Station. A slow to medium level charging station for electric vehicles that is typically accessory to another use, such as single-family residences, apartments, and businesses. Level 1 (120-volt AC) is considered slow charging. Level 2 (208- or 240-volt AC) is considered medium charging.

e. Electric Vehicle (EV) Rapid Charging Station. An industrial-grade electrical outlet that allows for faster charging of electric vehicle batteries through higher power levels and that meets or exceeds any standards, codes, and regulations set forth by Chapter 19.28 RCW and consistent with rules adopted under RCW 19.27.540. Such stations are also known as Level 3 facilities and are considered fast or rapid charging (480-volt AC), and are generally available to the public.

f. Electric Vehicle (EV) Battery Exchange Station. A facility that will enable an electric vehicle with a swappable battery to enter a drive lane and exchange the depleted battery with a fully charged battery. Such exchange stations may use a fully automated process, which meets or exceeds any standards, codes, and regulations set forth by Chapter 19.27 RCW.

6. Office.

a. General Office. Government, business and professional offices that operate during typical weekday hours. Examples include local, regional, state, and federal offices and agencies; veterinary clinics; medical and dental laboratories; blood collection centers; offices for attorneys, architects, accountants, engineers, stockbrokers, real estate agents, mortgage bankers, insurance brokers, and other consultants; headquarters offices; sales offices; radio, and television studios. Also includes painting, landscaping, building and janitorial contractors where the indoor storage of materials and equipment are incidental to the office use. If this storage exceeds 50 percent of occupied space, such uses are classified as Industrial Services (see subsection (D)(1) of this section). Offices that are part of and are located within a firm in another use category are considered accessory to the firm’s primary activity. Also excludes medical office and related facilities (see subsection (C)(6)(b) of this section).

b. Medical Office. Offices for physicians, dentists, chiropractors, and allied health care professionals; freestanding outpatient health care facilities; urgency clinics; naturopathic, and homeopathic facilities; and home health organizations that provide on-site services to patients and that generally operate during typical peak weekday hours.

c. Extended Office. Offices that operate during nontraditional hours including evenings, nights, and weekends. Examples include taxis and other vehicles for hire, funeral homes and accessory crematoria, telemarketing/service centers and internet communication centers. Accessory uses may include fleet vehicle parking, communication switching and other equipment and limited storage of goods.

7. Nonaccessory Parking. Any private or public vehicle and bicycle parking, either paid or free, which is not accessory to a primary use. Includes public and private parking structures and lots; and freestanding fleet vehicle parking lots.

8. Self-Service Storage. Commercial operations that provide rental of storage space to the public. The storage areas are designed to allow private access by the tenant for storing or removing personal property. These facilities do not include outdoor storage or moving and storage companies where there is no individual storage or where employees are primary movers of the goods to be stored (see subsection (D)(5) of this section, Warehouse/Freight Movement). No tenant may use a self-service storage facility for residential purposes. “Self-service storage” is synonymous with self-service storage facility and mini-storage.

9. Marina. A facility that provides secure moorings for recreational or commercial boats.

10. Artisan and Specialty Goods Production. Small-scale businesses that manufacture artisan goods or specialty foods. Small manufacturing production aims at direct sales rather than the wholesale market. This small-scale manufacturing use is intended to be allowed where compatible with the commercial and residential fabric of the city center. An allowance for public viewing or customer service space is required with artisan and specialty goods production. This use category includes the following uses: sugar and confectionary, fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty foods, bakeries and tortilla manufacturing; artisan leather, glass, cutlery, hand tools, wood, paper, ceramic, textile and yarn products; microbreweries, microdistilleries, and wineries. Refer to Commercial and Mixed-Use Districts Use Table 20.430.030-1 and Special Limitations on Uses, VMC 20.430.050.

D. Industrial use types.

1. Industrial Services. Includes the repair and servicing of industrial and business machinery, equipment and/or products. Examples include welding shops; machine shops; sales, repair, storage, salvage or wrecking of heavy machinery, metal and building materials; towing and vehicle storage; auto and truck salvage and wrecking; heavy truck servicing and repair; tire recapping and retreading; truck stops; building, heating, plumbing or electrical contractors; exterminators; janitorial and building maintenance contractors where the indoor storage of materials is more than incidental to the office use (see subsection (C)(6)(a) of this section); laundry, dry cleaning and carpet cleaning plants; and photo-finishing laboratories.

2. Manufacturing and Production. Includes production, processing, assembling, packaging or treatment of semifinished or finished products from raw materials or previously prepared materials or components. Manufacturing production is intended for the wholesale market rather than for direct sales.

3. Railroad Yards. A terminus of several light or heavy railroad lines where the loading, unloading, transshipment, switching, maintenance, and storage of rail cars is undertaken.

4. Research and Development. Facility featuring a mix of uses including office, research laboratories, and prototype manufacturing. If the use contains no on-site manufacturing component, then it is considered General Office (see subsection (C)(6)(a) of this section).

5. Warehouse/Freight Movement. Uses involved in the storage and movement of large quantities of materials or products indoors and/or outdoors; associated with significant truck and/or rail traffic. Examples include freestanding warehouses associated with retail furniture or appliance outlets; household moving and general freight storage; food banks; cold storage plants/frozen food lockers; weapon and ammunition storage; major wholesale distribution centers; truck, marine and air freight terminals and dispatch centers; grain terminals; and stockpiling of sand, gravel, bark dust or other aggregate and landscaping materials.

6. Waste-Related. Uses that receive solid or liquid wastes from others for disposal on the site or for transfer to another location, uses that collect sanitary wastes or uses that manufacture or produce goods or energy from the composting of organic material. Examples include: recycling/garbage transfer stations; landfills; composting, energy recovery and sewage treatment plants; and hazardous waste handling and transfer facilities that do not treat or dispose of hazardous waste, as that term is defined in 40 CFR Part 261. Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act. Hazardous waste or disposal facilities are not included in this classification and are therefore not permitted in the city of Vancouver.

7. Wholesale Sales. Involves sales, leasing or rental of equipment or products primarily intended for industrial, institutional or commercial businesses. Businesses may or may not be open to the general public, but sales to the general public are limited. Examples include the sale or rental of machinery, equipment, building materials, special trade tools, welding supplies, machine parts, electrical supplies, janitorial supplies, restaurant equipment, and store fixtures; mail order houses; and wholesalers of food, clothing, auto parts, and building hardware.

8. Major Utility Facilities. Those facilities which have a substantial public impact, including but not limited to: sewage treatment plants and lagoons; electric generation facilities; and essential public facilities as defined in Chapter 20.855 VMC, Essential Public Facilities.

9. Bulk Fossil Fuel Storage and Handling Facility. “Bulk fossil fuel storage and handling facility” means any structure, group of structures, equipment, or device that stores or transfers any material derived from prehistoric organic matter, including but not limited to: petroleum and petroleum products, coal, and natural gases, including without limitation methane, propane, and butane. The term does not include facilities that store and handle finished products derived from fossil fuels including but not limited to asphalt, plastics, fertilizers, paints, and denatured ethanol. Bulk fossil fuel storage and handling facilities are greater than 60,000 gallons cumulative storage. The director may refer to RCW 82.38.020 or other state or federal laws to assist in interpretation of this use classification.

10. Cleaner Fuels Storage and Handling Facility. Means any structure, group of structures, equipment or device previously classified as bulk fossil fuel storage and handling that is converted to store or transfers any material derived from cleaner fuels, as defined in Chapter 20.150 VMC.

11. Small Fossil Fuel or Cleaner Fuel Storage and Distribution Facilities. Means local distribution gas storage tanks with individual storage capacities of 30,000 gallons or less and cumulative storage of 60,000 gallons or less. Such tanks store fossil fuels or cleaner fuels and are either for local distribution to customers or serve as an accessory facility necessary to support an on-site allowed primary commercial, industrial, educational, scientific, or governmental use and do not otherwise meet the definitions of Bulk Fossil Fuel Storage and Handling Facility in subsection (D)(9) of this section, or Vehicle Fuel Sales in subsection (C)(5)(c) of this section; provided, however, that fuel storage for accessory emergency generators shall not be considered a Small Fossil Fuel or Cleaner Fuel Storage and Distribution Facility, which shall be governed by the primary use allowances and necessary fire code reviews.

E. Other use types.

1. Agriculture/Horticulture. Open areas devoted to the raising of fruits, vegetables, nuts, nursery stock and/or flowers, including community gardens; may include on-site sales of products grown on the site. Excludes nurseries (see subsection (C)(4)(e) of this section, Outdoor Sales).

2. Airports/Airparks. Includes aircraft runways, landing strips and uses supporting airport operations such as control towers, hangars, and fuel storage facilities. Also includes uses incidental to airports such as aerial mapping; air cargo warehousing and distribution, airport pilot training schools; aircraft sales and repair; aviation clubs and museums; and public transportation transfer areas. Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act.

3. Animal Kennel/Shelters. Animal kennel and shelter facilities for the overnight boarding and day care of dogs, cats and other domestic pets. Excludes breeding.

4. Cemeteries. Facilities for storing human remains. Accessory uses may include chapels, mortuaries, crematoria, mausoleums, administrative offices, maintenance facilities, and parking.

5. Detention and Post-Detention Facilities. Uses which have the characteristics of Group Living but are devoted to the housing, training and supervision of those under judicial detention. Examples include prisons; jails; probation centers; juvenile detention homes; and related post-incarceration and halfway houses. Such a facility that has regional or state-wide significance is classified as an essential public facility by the provisions of the Growth Management Act.

6. Dog Day Care. “Dog day care” shall mean any premises containing four or more dogs, which are five months or older, where these domestic animals are dropped off and picked up daily for temporary care on site and where they may be groomed, trained, exercised, and socialized, but are not kept or boarded overnight, bred, sold or let for hire. Excludes Animal Kennel/Shelters (see subsection (E)(3) of this section, Animal Kennel/Shelters).

7. Heliports. Public or private facilities designed for the landing, departure, storage, and fueling of helicopters.

8. Mining. Uses that mine or extract mineral or aggregate resources from the ground for off-site use. Accessory uses may include storage, rock crushing, sorting, and transfer facilities.

9. Rail Lines/Utility Corridors. The regional corridors in public or private ownership dedicated for use by rail lines; above-grade or underground power or communication lines; water, sewer and storm sewer lines or similar services.

10. Temporary Uses. Includes uses that are temporary or interim in nature that are not subject to full compliance with the development standards for the applicable zoning district, or by which the city may allow seasonal or transient uses not otherwise permitted. Uses may include seasonal or special events involving tents, canopies, membrane structures or storage containers. Situations caused by an unforeseen event deemed by the planning official to be an emergency situation or a temporary trailer or prefabricated building for us on any commercial or industrial zoned property as temporary commercial or industrial office or space associated with the primary use.

11. Wireless Communication Facilities. Includes publicly and privately owned towers and related transmitting equipment for television; FM/AM radio; cellular and two-way radio and microwave transmission; and related ancillary equipment buildings. Does not include radio/television transmission facilities that are part of the public safety network (see subsection (B)(7) of this section, Emergency Services). Does not include amateur (ham) radio antennas or towers. (Ord. M-4438 § 4(B), 2023; Ord. M-4433 § 2(B) (Att. B), 2023; Ord. M-4418 § 2(b), 2023; Ord. M-4380 § 5, 2022; Ord. M-4288 § 3, 2019; Ord. M-4255 § 3, 2018; Ord. M-4254 § 3(A), 2018; Ord. M-4187 § 3, 2016; Ord. M-4024 § 5, 2012; Ord. M-4002 § 4, 2011; Ord. M-3959 § 4, 2010; Ord. M-3931, 2009; Ord. M-3931 § 1, 2009; Ord. M-3922 § 3, 2009; Ord. M-3847 § 2, 2007; Ord. M-3832 § 2, 2007; Ord. M-3701 § 3, 2005; Ord. M-3663 § 3, 2004; Ord. M-3643, 2004)